Researchers have conducted the largest study on the male Y chromosome; utilizing 69 males from 7 different populations as identified by the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) which showed that the genetic “Adam” is much older than previously assumed.
The oldest “Eve”, based on mitochondrial DNA, is believed to have lived in the African savannah between 99 and 148 thousand years ago. However “Adam” has been traced through the Y chromosome to about 50 to 115 thousand years ago.
With this recent analysis of the Y chromosome, male populations across the globe are said to have appeared between 120 and 156 thousand years ago.
The study explains: “Dogma has held that the common ancestor of human patrilineal lineages, popularly referred to as the Y-chromosome ‘Adam’, lived considerably more recently than the common ancestor of female lineages, the so-called mitochondrial ‘Eve’. However, we conclude that the mitochondrial coalescence time is not substantially greater than that of the Y chromosome.”
Researchers concluded that the Y chromosome has changed very little throughout the centuries. Genetic material was compared to establish a “molecular clock” of changes in the Y chromosome.
Theories contend that if genetics are traced back far enough than a common ancestry can be found. Debates over the mitochondrial “Eve” and the Y chromosome “Adam” have fueled the work that proposed those two persons may have lived within relative time periods that were close to one another.
Through the Y chromosome, which is passed from father to son, and the DNA established from mitochondrial analysis, tracing can show maternal and paternal ancestry.
Considering that mutations occur over time, the affect they pose can reveal how the ancestry can be followed to a specific point.
In 1987, the assumption was established that “Eve” lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago.
Carlos Bustamante of Stanford University and Paolo Francalacci of University of Sassari separately found that “Adam” may have actually lived.
Bustamante uncovered “existence of humanity’s common paternal ancestor is between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago.”
Francalacci collected DNA samples from 1204 Sardinian men andunveiled that the commonality must have occurred “between 180,000 and 200,000 years ago.
Rebecca Cann, professor at the University of Hawaii and member of the team from the 1987 study, said that these new findings are “elegant and careful.”
Michael Hammer, originator of another study on the Y chromosome, asserts that this common ancestor dates back farther in time.
Hammer said : “One reason these estimates are not as old as ours is because they didn’t sample the most divergent Y chromosome that we know about, which to date has been found only in a small area of western Cameroon.”
Biblical versions of Adam and Eve do not match up with the findings of these scientific persons. The studies show that “Adam” and “Eve” was not the first human alive on the planet; just that those humans alive today have a genetic connection to them.
Assumptions by science must acknowledge that if a woman only had sons, her mitochondrial DNA would “disappear” as it is only passed from mother to daughter.
Jeffrey Kidd,, assistant [professor of Human Genetics and Computational Medicine & Bioinformatics who worked on the new study, stated that recent advancements in genetic technology have allowed researchers to come to this conclusion.
Kidd asserts that this study should be a launching pad for other research that would identify sequencing variations in the Y chromosome and other genetic material that could establish a concrete understanding of our most recent common ancestor.
Fundamentalists in Kentucky have claimed that the universe is only 6,000 years old, based on calculations given in the Old and New Testament.
Creationists maintain that the Bible provides information in the Book of Genesis that can be taken literally and used in scientific research to confirm the Garden of Eden and the original Adam and Eve.
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